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Department of Defense (DoD) programs often experience cost overruns and technical difficulties due to reuse of legacy systems. With today’s fiscal climate of resource-constrained DoD budgets, reuse of legacy systems is frequently touted as the solution to cost, efficiency, and time-to-delivery problems; however, cost overruns and technical difficulties can significantly diminish any perceived benefits. Through evaluation of eight diverse DoD programs, this research shows that the state of a legacy system’s documentation, availability of subject matter expertise, and complexity/feasibility of integration are key factors that must be analyzed. Based on these three key factors, the authors propose a framework to aid both the DoD and defense contractors in the evaluation of legacy systems for potential efficient and effective reuse.