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Weapon systems must provide a needed capability, meet user needs as evidenced by operational effectiveness and operational suitability, and must be affordable. While operational effectiveness addresses the degree of mission accomplishment in the intended environment, operational suitability addresses the degree to which a system can be satisfactorily placed in use, given reliability, availability, maintainability (RAM), supportability, and ownership cost, among other factors. These requirements are tested and quantified prior to fielding by the initial operational test and evaluation (IOT&E) process, and assessed against defined criteria. As illustrated in Figure 1, total ownership costs (TOC) incurred during the operations and support (O&S) phase may constitute 65 percent to 80 percent of total life cycle cost (LCC).